Latest Posts

Poem #4

January 9, 2021
/ / /

The tides of time make short my life,

A grave awaits on earthen shores,

But then on that eternal day,

A way for my dead body soars.

In heaven shall eternal keep,

Where I shall rest, awake, asleep.

Read More

“Illegal Immigration” is a Contradiction in Terms

January 4, 2021
/ / /

The governments of the world are limited in their jurisdiction — limited in space, time, and matter, both in content and in person. A government is the representative of a whole people. There are many people, with different languages, who may commodiously bind themselves together as one people, by virtue of their situation, tongue, and culture. The formation of governments, to grant sovereignty amongst men, must be limited by the aforesaid factors. Diversity implies limitation. The formation of laws not common is a contradiction in terms. The laws of one people hold only over those people. For example, the communication of laws is necessary to their enforcement, hence only those to whom it may be communicated in a common tongue are bound.

It is immoral, and illegal (that is, contrary to the institution of law) for a government of limited jurisdiction to form laws prohibiting or criminalizing either immigration or emigration. Governments have, in time of peace, no authority to ban or outlaw people seeking to cross or enter their borders.

The proof is this: an immigrant is, prior to immigration, outside the jurisdiction of the government whose land he seeks to enter, whose people he seeks to join (whether civilly, as a member of the community, or officially, as a citizen, or in any other manner); therefore, he is not under the jurisdiction of laws prohibiting him from doing so. And once he crosses the border, he is now under the jurisdiction of that government, and no law can be formed against his having done so. Neither may a government form laws preventing men from leaving their own country, for to leave one jurisdiction is to enter into the sight and sound of another.

These rules apply only to the act and intention itself, not to any adjuncts, accidents, or circumstances of his immigration. One who crosses a border to commit a crime, may yet be punished for his crime, whether he does so in his own person or in that of another.

This rule does not apply in times of war, where the innocent party has a legitimate claim to the territory of the aggressor, either to annex, liberate, or occupy. The purpose of war is to decide between claims that can in no way be settled through civil process, and by declaration of war each country establishes a legitimate claim to the land of the other, to prohibit entry from one to the other, for the purpose of defense.

Governments may indeed regulate immigration, but a power to regulate is a prohibition of the destruction of the thing to be regulated. To regulate means to make regular, and a thing that is destroyed is not made regular, because it is not at all. Governments have a civil authority to ensure that immigration takes place in a peaceable, orderly manner, to advise immigrants of the laws and customs of the land to which they have come, and to steady the flow of immigrants to various places, in order to avoid an excessive flux in the population.

This is not the same as picking and choosing who shall come and who shall not — such holier-than-thou thinking is forbidden to governments; nor is it the same as refusing access because some may use that access for illegal purposes; nor is it the same as discouraging people to come, or reducing the amount of immigration that would naturally occur. These must all be dismissed with prejudice, because a government of limited jurisdiction has no authority over those beyond its borders.

The governments of this world have no authority to forbid men to enter their lands, or to leave them; their jurisdiction is limited to their own borders; and their duty is to govern those within their lands, and not meddle in the affairs of others. There is no such thing as “illegal immigration.” Immigration is inherently legal, and belongs to the constitution of limited government.

Read More

The Logical Explanation of the Trinity

June 4, 2020
/ / /

God is an inwardly lawful being. An inwardly lawful being is righteous, blessed, and holy. Righteousness is lawfulness; blessedness is the union of lawfulness and happiness; and holiness is their identity. The divine nature is one according to the universal concept, but three according to the particular conception thereof. And the persons are moral subjects, divine particulars, to whom the divine nature belongs, as a universal predicate. There are therefore three divine persons conceivable, distinguished by the fundamental attributes of divinity, which are identified in one nature.

Gress, Julian, 2019, Christ Condemned: On the Incarnation and the Trinity 3, 35–36, 91–92

Read More

Against Contraception

May 4, 2020
/ / /

God commands us to be fruitful and multiply; he opens and closes the womb at his pleasure; he calleth those things which be not as though they were; he slew Onan for spilling his seed on the ground; when Mary conceived by the Holy Spirit, God did not ask for her permission; he declared it, and she said, “Behold, the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word.” He is the Creator of life, and he alone. Nor is there any scientific way to prove that contraception is effective, because it is impossible to know that a child would have been conceived without it. And a person has unconditional worth; the inner value of a person does not depend on any conditions or circumstances, nor even upon its very existence, but the concept alone of a human life commands our respect, and requires that we do nothing to prevent it from entering into the world. And the historic church voices itself against contraception, as infringing upon the Lord’s sole jurisdiction in this matter.

Read More


April 17, 2020
/ / /

1. Pray in faith. Believe that God hears prayer, as much and more than you can imagine or desire. Prayer works. Prayer gives God a reason to act. God wants reasons to act!

2. Pray fervently. Afflict your soul. Humble your heart. Come into his presence with reverence. Pour out your heart to him. Give him your grief, and he will bear your burden. Pray the more fervently the more you suffer.

3. Pray in righteousness. Do not come before him with an evil heart. Confess your sins. Acknowledge your shortcomings. Do not keep back from him either your soul, but put away wickedness from your heart.

4. Always seek a higher degree of sanctification. However fervently you pray, pray more fervently still.

5. Pray always. Have this mindset within you. Let your eyes always be looking toward God.

6. Pray in all things, by measure, and in proportion. As you are always in his presence, so let every need and desire be subjected to his sovereign care, that his work may be perfected in you.

Read More

Men and Women Friendships

April 17, 2020
/ / /

It is lawful for a man to befriend a woman, as Jesus befriended Mary Magdalene; to be alone together, as Jesus with Mary at his tomb; and to touch, as Mary touched Jesus after his resurrection, and he rebuked her, not because it was impure, but because he had not yet ascended to his Father.

Read More

Distant Starlight

September 8, 2019
/ / /

How has the light of distant stars reached the earth?

The celestial bodies are on the fourth day of creation “set” in the firmament, the same day they give light to the earth. There is neither change of place nor of time.

Creation is an act of God. The rule of natural science is, that from the present motion of any body, the past state may be inferred. Thus, although the stars came into being the fourth day, the past state of the universe may yet be deduced from the present.

The objection that there is not enough time for the light of distant stars to reach the earth may be answered, that God created the stars along with their past. That history includes the motion of these bodies, and the diffusion of their light throughout the universe. And the history of these lights comes into being with them in the moment of creation.

“Thus saith the LORD, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? and where is the place of my rest?” Isaiah 66:1

“Thy throne is of old; thou art from everlasting” Psalm 92:2

“For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.” Isaiah 55:8-9

Read More

“But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot.” Genesis 8:9

August 26, 2019
/ / /

The grace of God, and the innocence of our Lord Jesus Christ, is from heaven above; and though it is manifest in the flesh, it is not an object of sensation, as of the waters, but revealed therein, as upon the earth. Yet the earth is to be cleansed of sin, by the wrath of God poured out upon the Son, “Behold, the lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world” (John 1:29). Therefore, Christ’s feet are dipped in water, and his head is baptized by his messenger, as of the body, and the spirit descended, and abode upon him; and he himself is lifted up, that the grace of God might rest upon the earth.

Read More

Lawful Taxation

August 21, 2019
/ / /

No person may be taxed without his consent, for “governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed,” and among these, the power of the purse. That consent must be as the tax itself. Therefore, an individual tax requires individual consent, and a commercial tax requires commercial consent.

An involuntary tax is immoral. A tax on a person, or any thing proper to a person, such as his lands or labor is, without his consent, unlawful. And a government that must rely on force to collect such a tax must be unjust.

A voluntary tax on the person is, however, permissible. In this case, the legitimate use of the government’s authority is to call upon the people to provide the funds necessary for the public good. And a just government, with the consent of the people, shall have the people’s support.

Also lawful are taxes on luxury transactions. A tax on necessities is unlawful, because the government is never more necessary than bread; but a luxury cannot be obtained without order in society, and though it does no evil to society, neither does it do any good.

Luxuries are sought, either to indulge a wicked appetite, or for the lawful enjoyment of the possessor. The purpose of government is to reward the righteous and punish the wicked. If, then, a wicked man purchases a luxury for his vice, he is punished by the tax; but if a just man buys it lawfully, he is rewarded for his contribution to society, for a just man cannot bear to enjoy some exclusive good, unless it benefits the whole.

Howsoever rich a man is, if his money is spent in the way of necessities, he benefits society; he must not be taxed. When, however, he uses his money to some exclusive good, not enjoyed by the rest of society, but which is only possible through the good order of society, then the public has a legitimate claim to benefit therefrom, and by paying such a tax in the transaction itself, he gives his consent.

Consent to such a tax is lawful under the following conditions. 1. It is appointed by the representative body of the people. 2. It is subject to negotiation. 3. The tax payer is permitted to pursue judicial remedy in case of wrong. All things being done in good order.

Read More

Personal Union with Christ

August 21, 2019
/ / /

Christ is unconditionally condemned by the Father, for his glory, yet the law of God requires that sin and guilt reciprocally imply one another. Therefore Christ, being condemned, but not for any sin he committed, is condemned for the sins of others, whose sins are imputed to him. These are the elect, chosen in Christ for the glory of God.

The law of God requires that sin and guilt, righteousness and innocence, reciprocally imply one another in one person. However, the condemnation of Christ is unconditional, not for sin he himself committed, but for the sins of others. Wherefore, the elect are personally united to Christ, his the guilt, theirs the sin; and because he partook of their sin, they also partake of his righteousness.

And that lawfully, to produce an intuition of the Father, who unconditionally condemned his Son; and of the Son, who bore their sins; and of the Holy Spirit, who is justifies Christ in his submission to condemnation, that the elect may be redeemed for the glory of God.

“Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.” Isaiah 53:10-12

Read More

Forgiveness of Sins

August 18, 2019
/ / /

Forgiveness is in the offer, or in the act. The offer is made before it is received; the act, after. Faith receives forgiveness of sins, and repentance is the condition of faith lawfully exercised.

Forgiveness of sins is the change in the person’s legal state, away from condemnation, unto justification. The former respects the end of rejection, the latter respects the beginning of acceptance. The sinner, once forgiven, is no more condemned.

This forgiveness is not possible, except through the satisfaction of the sinners debt by the Lord Jesus Christ. And although he has satisfied the debt, the credit is not given to the person, until the death of Christ is applied to them, and they are united to Christ, for the law of God requires that satisfaction be made in their own persons.

This satisfaction is applied to them in regeneration, whereby God, of his free justice, crucifies their sinful selves with his only Begotten Son. For in dying to sin, and living to God, they pay the penalty of death, and their consciences are all cleansed, that they might freely receive forgiveness of sins, and justification by faith.

Read More

Is God the Author of Sin?

August 16, 2019
/ / /

God is an inwardly lawful being; ergo, he is not the author of sin.

Yet he created the devil, who brought down a third of the angels and the whole of humanity in his fall.

But God did not make the devil to sin. God made him in righteousness, for his own sake, for a person is an end in itself.

And although he is an end in himself, he is not the supreme end of all things, but God.

Wherefore, God lawfully created the devil, with foreknowledge of his sin, for his own holy purposes.

Read More

Election and Reprobation

August 11, 2019
/ / /

“Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour? What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction: And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory.” Romans 9:21-23

Election is not on the basis of works; yet there is an inner difference in the persons of men, whereby one is fitted for mercy, another for wrath, as one vessel is made unto dishonor, and another unto honor. For the plate is made unto honor, but the ash tray to dishonor; and the cup is made unto honor, but the sink unto dishonor. So also, with the souls of men, some are made unto honor, and others unto dishonor.

For according to the divine nature, all men are made in righteousness, and unto righteousness; but according to the divine persons, who are the fountain of grace, some men are shown mercy, and others are passed over, that mercy might be shown to the elect, that he has saved them from such destruction through the sacrifice of his Son. And that not of works, but of himself, who has unconditionally condemned the Lord Jesus Christ, imputing our sins to him, that he might be glorified in our salvation. For it is his mercy to give, or withhold, as he pleases.

“For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.” Romans 9:15

Read More


July 27, 2019
/ / /

God is an inwardly lawful being, righteous, blessed, holy.

There is one God, invisible, who has appeared to us in Jesus Christ.

Jesus Christ is innocent, thought condemned, being nonlegally righteous as God.

For the Father, who is God unconditionally, unconditionally condemns the Lord Jesus Christ; the Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, submits himself to the condemnation of the Father, in dependence on him; and the Holy Spirit justifies Christ in his submission to the Father’s condemnation, in dependence on the Father and the Son, who depend on one another in the his procession.

Wherefore, the Father is the righteousness of God, the Son is his blessedness, and the Spirit is his holiness. And these three are one God, righteous, blessed, and holy, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Amen.

Read More

Man Made Perfect

February 5, 2019
/ / /

If “perfect” means lacking nothing proper to the concept, then God made man perfect. Adam lacked nothing proper to the concept of “man,” but he was not therefore perfectly righteous, for righteousness is not the concept of man, but of God. God is perfectly righteous, and he made man righteous, but not perfectly so, free to fall. It is only in the state of grace that man is made perfectly righteous. “the spirits of just men made perfect” (Hebrews 12:23).

Read More

Baptism: Mode and Recipient

December 17, 2017
/ / /

Baptism means dipping or washing; it is the application of water. Those who are baptized into Christ are his members, and he is their head, therefore, baptism is rightly applied to the head, by pouring or sprinkling (Ephesians 4:4-5, 15-16, 5:23, 1 Corinthians 11:3, 12:12-13, 27). Immersion should not be used to convey their part in his death, burial, and resurrection, because this belongs to the members of Christ by his headship, as the apostle Paul argues in Romans 6:3—else they would have known. And because Christ is the head of the visible church; children are under the authority of their parents; and baptism is a sign of the covenant of grace; therefore, the children of believing parents are to be baptized, as members of the visible church.

Read More

Means of Worship

November 21, 2017
/ / /

Wherewith shall I come before the LORD, and bow myself before the high God? shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old? Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, or with ten thousands of rivers of oil? shall I give my firstborn for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul? He hath shewed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the LORD require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God? Micah 6:6-8

God is to be worshipped by obedience to his commandments, and only those means that he has appointed in his word are to be used in worship.

Read More